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Review on Kadamba plant

Review on Kadamba :

Description of the plant:
Kadamba
Biological Source: Drug consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus chinensis(Lamk.) A. Rich. ex Walp. (Plate ) (Syn. A. cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.; A. indicus A. 
Rich.);
Family: Rubiaceae
Distribution: It is a large deciduous tree, found all over India in moist, warm, deciduous and evergreen forests.
Other Names
Assam. - Roghu, Kadam
Beng. - Kadam
Guj. - Kadamb, Kadam
Hind. - Kadam, Kadamb
Kan. - Kadamba, Kadamba mara, Kadavala

A large tree, branches spreading, bark dark-brown. Leaves simple, opposite, entire,caducous,coriaceous, stipules lanceolate. Inflorescence  globose, penduncled solitary head; flowers orange colored with white stigma, scented at night. Fruit confluent into a fleshy globose mass. yellow or orange-colored, scented flowers; fruit a fleshy, orange, globose pseudocorp of compressed angular capsules with persistent calyx; seeds small, muriculate.
Anthocephalus cadamba family Rubiaceae amedium sized tree the attaining 2m. girth and 18m. high. Branches spreading horizontally and slightly enlarged at their junction with the main stem. Bark dark brown, roughish, with shallow fissures, 
exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Blaze 2.2-.3.3 cm. very fibrous, pale yellow, rapidly turning dirty greenish brown on exposure. Leaves 15-30 by 10-17 cm, elliptic-oblong or ovate, acute or shortly acuminate, base usually rounded or subcordate and abruptly cuneate on the petiole, glabrous and dark glossy green above with paler midrib and lateral nerves, glabrous or pubescent beneath. Coriaceous, secondary nerves 10-14 pairs, prominent beneath, curving upwards towards the leaf -margin, base decurrent on the midrib. Stipules 1.3-1.6 cm. long. Petiole 2.5-6.3 cm.long terete. Flowers small, orange or yellow in globose heads, which are solitary and terminal and 2.5-4.5cm. Diameter. Corolla 1.3cm. long. Stigmas white, much 
exserted.Fruit a globose pseudocarp 5-6.3cm. diam., yellow when ripe.

Traditional Uses:

Kadamba is one such Ayurvedic remedy that has been mentioned in many Ayurvedi literatures for the treatment of fever, anemia, uterine complaints, menorrhigia, blood and skin diseases, diarrhoea, colitis, stomatitis, dysentery and in improvement of 
semen quality. Anthocephalus indicus grows throughout India, especially at low levels in wet places. In traditional system of remedies warm aqueous extract of Anthocephalus indicus leaves have been used to alleviate the pain, swelling and for cleansing and better wound healing. Recently, Anthocephalus indicus has been reported to possess antimicrobial, wound healing, antioxidant, ant malarial and hepatoprotective activity. The fruit juice of the plant augments the quantity of breast milk of lactating mothers and also works as a lactodepurant. Root extract of this plant is salutary in urinary ailments like dysurea, calculi and glycosuria . The bark is pungent, bitter, sweet, acrid, saline, aphrodisiac, cooling,indigestible, galactagogue, astringent to the bowels, vulnerary,alexiteric, good in uterine complaints,blood disease, strangury, “Vata”, “Kapha”, biliousness, burning sensation. The fruit is 
heating, aphrodisiac, causes biliousness when ripe. The sprouts are acrid, aphrodisiac, stomachic, cure leprosy and dysentery. The bark is used as a febrifuge and tonic. In the konkan, the fresh juice of the bark is applied to the heads of infants when the 
fontanelle sinks, and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally.
In inflammation of the eyes, the bark juice, with equal quantities of lime juice, opium and alum is applied round the orbit. A decoction of the leaves is used as a gargles in cases of stomatitis. In some parts of Tong King the bark is given for coughs, in some other parts for fever. The bark is generally considered tonic. Charaka prescribes the bark in the treatment of snake bite; but the bark is not an antidote to snake- venom. 

Chemical Investigation :

There are reports that heartwood, leaves, flower and seeds of A. indicus contain typical alkaloid; Cadambine and its derivatives, some complex polysaccharides and other common constituents . A. indicus have shown that heartwood and leaves of 
this plant contain cadambine, 3a and 3b isomers of dihydrocadambine and isodihydrocadambine . It has been reported that its stem bark contains 
cadambagic acid along with quinovic acid and b-sitosterol . Moreover, a complex polysaccharide from flowers and seeds of A. indicus has been isolated.Chlorogenic acid isolated from A. indicus (Cadamba) has been reported to be a potent hepatoprotective agent . Glycosidic alkaloid, triterpenic acid, and saponins is also present in stem bark of kadamba.

Pharmacological application of plant:

 Kumar V., et al (2008) studied the lipid lowering activity of Anthocephalus indicus root extract in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. In this model,feeding with root extract (500mg/kg b.w.) lowered plasma lipids and reactivated post-heparin lipolytic activity in hyperlipidemic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50–500 mM) inhibited the generation of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non-enzymic systems, in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated both lipid lowering and antioxidant 
activities in root extract of A. indicus, which could help prevention of hyperlipidemia and related diseases.
 Kapil (1995) reported antihepatotoxic effect of chlorogenic acid CGA fromAnthocephalus cadamba by in vitro and invivo assays methods using
carbontetrachloride (CCl4) as a model of liver injury. Intraperitoneal administration of CGA to mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 8 days
caused significant reversal in lipid peroxidation, enzymation leakage, cytochrome P450 (CytP450) inactivation and produced enhancement of
cellular antioxidant defence in CCl4-intoxicated mice, revealing that the antioxidative action of CGA is responsible for its liver protective activity. 
CGA exhibited a better therapeutic protective action than silymarin (SM) in CCl4 administered mice.D.
 Umachighi S.P., et al (2007) had reported antibacterial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of bark of Anthocephalus cadamba by the disc diffusion method. The plant showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against almost all the organisms and especially good activity was found against the dermatophytes. A. cadamba extract has potent wound healing capacity as shown from the wound contraction and increased tensile strength. The results also indicated that A. cadamba extract possesses potent antioxidant activity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. 

 Acharyya1 S et al. studied on glucose lowering efficacy of the Anthocephalus cadamba roots. The methanol and aqueous extracts of the roots of 
Anthocephalus cadamba was tested for hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. respectively. Theextract was further subjected to oral glucose tolerance test in normal rats. The hypoglycaemic activity of the root was compared with the reference standard glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.). The study revealed that the roots extract caused significant reduction in the blood glucose level in both normoglycaemic and alloxan induced diabetic 
rats at the tested dose levels in a dose dependant manner. In glucose-loaded animals, the extract also reduced the elevated blood glucose concentration.
 Ambujakshi H.R. et al. Analgesic activity of Anthocephalus cadamba leaf extract Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8), 1279-12801279-1280 
investigated the analgesic activity of Anathocephalus cadamba leaf extract using acetic acid induced writhing test and a hot plate method. Aqueous extract of Anathocephalus cadamba leaves showed significant reduction in the number of writhing induced by acetic acid and increased reaction time in hot plate test.

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